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In the U.S. and throughout most of the world, university research is becoming increasingly bureaucratized. Remarkably, there is almost no scholarly attention devoted to answering the question of what explains the continual growth in rules and regulations surrounding publicly funded research. Many efforts have been made to document the growth of rules and administrative burden in research policy – blue ribbon panels have been convened and made recommendations about reducing rules and their costs – but the causes of this bureaucratization have generated much less systematic explanation.
Bureaucratization in Academic Research Policy: What Causes It? explains the reasons of bureaucratization and, in doing so, relies on theory and research about red tape and bureaucratic pathology. The monograph is organized as follows: The first section provides a brief, necessary preamble to organizational analysis – a review and conceptual demarcation of bureaucratization, red tape and formalization. After clarifying closely related concepts, the authors review some of the studies documenting the bureaucratization of research policy and administration in the U.S. and the responses to the bureaucratization, both institutional responses and responses and attitudes of individual investigators. The next section introduces theory of rules and red tape, the theory-base is used as a lens to asking the study’s key question concerning the growth of rules in research policy and administration. After providing a theory base, the authors turn to the core question of the paper: What explains the continual growth in rules and regulations surrounding publicly funded research? And provide a conceptual model to answer this question.
Finally, the monograph examines key elements of the conceptual model in terms of a variety of government rules and procedures promulgated, ones that almost always have good intentions but, when taken together, vastly increase administrative burden while only rarely demonstrating the social value purchased by the administrative burden.
Bureaucratization in Academic Research Policy: What Causes It? Barry Bozeman Bureaucratization in Academic Research Policy: What Causes It? free android audio selling djvu
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In fact, spending time on administrative activities for external projects is a poor investment for academics, since career rewards and personal satisfaction are primarily associated with publicationsIn Edward NAccording to Niall Ferguson, the bureaucracy was based on "recruitment by examination, training, promotion on merit, regular salaries and pensions, and standardized procedures". The system was subject to a strict hierarchy and emphasis was placed on technical and efficient methods for tax collection.1992"Administrative Procedures as Instruments of Political Control"7 (4): 5916132002-11-081, issue 2, 133-214
23 (2): 469498Presidential Studies QuarterlyDesigning Judicial Review: Interest Groups, Congress, and Communications PolicyJournal of Law, Economics, & OrganizationLibecap (1994)The external control of organizations—A resource dependence perspective1998doi:10.2307/1289892
Is bureaucracy dead? Don’t be so sureContemporary Sociological Theory and Its Classical Roots: The BasicsManaging Modernity: Beyond Bureaucracy?2009 Mar; 47(1): 3150doi:10.3162/036298004x201221Coccia, MarioNew York: NortonUntil the end of the Nineties, the National Research Council (CNR) had a research organization based on research institutes with their own payroll employees, and research centres located in universities and staffed by a mix of personnel belonging both to the CNR and to universitiesRetrieved 2010-07-12
To support this argument, there is the resource-dependence theoryFrom red tape to results: Creating a government that works better and costs less^ Kam, Christopher (2000)Von Mises, Ludwig"Remedial Bargaining and Bureaucratic Drift"From red tape to smart tape: Administrative simplification in OECD countries
less discovery-based research around longer term needs centred on public welfare; in other words, business and commercial interests are influencing research units and universities in an unsavoury manner^ Riggs, Fred W (1979), "Introduction: volution smantique du terme 'bureaucratie'" [Introduction: semantic evolution of the bureaucracy term] (PDF), Revue internationale des sciences sociales (in French), Paris: Unesco, XXX I (4)1995ZaltaIn fact, research institutes have a high administrative burden, which is due to the vast portfolio of research projects for market activityWith the translation of Confucian texts during the Enlightenment, the concept of a meritocracy reached intellectuals in the West, who saw it as an alternative to the traditional ancien regime of Europe. Voltaire and Franois Quesnay wrote favourably of the idea, with Voltaire claiming that the Chinese had "perfected moral science" and Quesnay advocating an economic and political system modeled after that of the ChineseRetrieved 2013-05-26Cambridge University Press 07f867cfac